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T-34/85   Russian Medium tank

General Specifications
Crew 5
Length 8.15 m
Width 3.00 m
Height 2.60 m
Weight 32 tonnes
Armour and Armament
Armour 90 mm
Main Weapon 85 mm gun  ZiS-S-53
Secondary Weapons 2 x 7.62mm DT Machine gun 
Engine and Mobility
Engine V2, 12 cylinder Diesel
370 kW (500 hp)
Suspension Christie
Max. speed 55 km/h
power/weight 15.6 hp/tonne
Operational range 310 km

The T-34 was a Soviet medium tank produced from 1940 to 1958. It is widely regarded as having been the world's best tank when the Soviet Union became involved in World War II, and although its armour and armament were surpassed by later tanks of the era, it has been often credited as the war's most effective, efficient and influential design.


First produced at the KhPZ factory in Kharkov (Kharkiv, Ukraine), it was the mainstay of Soviet armoured forces throughout World War II, and widely exported afterwards. It was the most-produced tank of the war, and the second most-produced tank of all time, after its successor, the T-54/55 series. In 1996, the T-34 was still in service within at least twenty seven countries.


The T-34 was developed from the BT series of fast tanks and was intended to replace both the BT-5 and BT-7 tanks and the T-26 infantry tank in service. At its introduction, it was the tank with the best balanced attributes of firepower, mobility and protection, although initially its battlefield effectiveness suffered from the unsatisfactory ergonomic layout of its crew compartment, scarcity of radios, and poor tactical employment. The two-man turret crew arrangement required the commander to serve as the gunner, an arrangement common to most Soviet tanks of the day; this proved to be inferior to three-man (commander, gunner and loader) turret crews.


The design and construction of the tank were continuously refined during the war to enhance effectiveness and decrease costs, allowing steadily greater numbers of T-34s to be fielded. In early 1944, the improved T-34-85 was introduced, with a more powerful 85 mm gun and a three-man turret design. By the war's end in 1945, the versatile and cost-effective T-34 had replaced many light and heavy tanks in service, and accounted for the majority of Soviet tank production. Its evolutionary development led directly to the T-54/55 series of tanks, built until 1981 and still operational today.

   

 

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